ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

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ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Ricardo A. Reis
Hi all,

The University where i work recent  acquire a new server, i install
FreeBSD 6.0 and update for STABLE yestarday,
in dmesg i see this messages""


ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.


full-dmesg-output

Copyright (c) 1992-2005 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
       The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
FreeBSD 6.0-STABLE #0: Wed Nov  9 01:03:14 UTC 2005
   root@:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/SMP
ACPI APIC Table: <PTLTD          APIC  >
Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 0
CPU: Intel(R) Xeon(TM) CPU 3.20GHz (3200.13-MHz 686-class CPU)
 Origin = "GenuineIntel"  Id = 0xf41  Stepping = 1
 
Features=0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR,PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CLFLUSH,DTS,ACPI,MMX,FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,PBE>

 Features2=0x641d<SSE3,RSVD2,MON,DS_CPL,CNTX-ID,CX16,<b14>>
 AMD Features=0x20100000<NX,LM>
 Hyperthreading: 2 logical CPUs
real memory  = 1073152000 (1023 MB)
avail memory = 1041080320 (992 MB)
FreeBSD/SMP: Multiprocessor System Detected: 2 CPUs
cpu0 (BSP): APIC ID:  0
cpu1 (AP): APIC ID:  1
ioapic0 <Version 2.0> irqs 0-23 on motherboard
ioapic1 <Version 2.0> irqs 24-47 on motherboard
ioapic2 <Version 2.0> irqs 48-71 on motherboard
npx0: [FAST]
npx0: <math processor> on motherboard
npx0: INT 16 interface
acpi0: <PTLTD   RSDT> on motherboard
acpi0: Power Button (fixed)
pci_link0: <ACPI PCI Link LNKA> irq 5 on acpi0
pci_link1: <ACPI PCI Link LNKB> irq 10 on acpi0
pci_link2: <ACPI PCI Link LNKC> irq 10 on acpi0
pci_link3: <ACPI PCI Link LNKD> irq 11 on acpi0
pci_link4: <ACPI PCI Link LNKE> irq 0 on acpi0
pci_link5: <ACPI PCI Link LNKF> irq 0 on acpi0
pci_link6: <ACPI PCI Link LNKG> irq 0 on acpi0
pci_link7: <ACPI PCI Link LNKH> irq 0 on acpi0
Timecounter "ACPI-fast" frequency 3579545 Hz quality 1000
acpi_timer0: <24-bit timer at 3.579545MHz> port 0x1008-0x100b on acpi0
cpu0: <ACPI CPU> on acpi0
cpu1: <ACPI CPU> on acpi0
pcib0: <ACPI Host-PCI bridge> port 0xcf8-0xcff on acpi0
pci0: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib0
pci0: <unknown> at device 0.1 (no driver attached)
pci0: <base peripheral> at device 1.0 (no driver attached)
pcib1: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> irq 16 at device 2.0 on pci0
pci1: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib1
pcib2: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> irq 16 at device 3.0 on pci0
pci2: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib2
pcib3: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> at device 0.0 on pci2
pci3: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib3
ahd0: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port
0x2400-0x24ff,0x2000-0x20ff mem 0xdd200000-0xdd201fff irq 32 at device
2.0 on pci3
ahd0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel A, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs
ahd1: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port
0x2c00-0x2cff,0x2800-0x28ff mem 0xdd202000-0xdd203fff irq 33 at device
2.1 on pci3
ahd1: [GIANT-LOCKED]
aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel B, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs
pci2: <base peripheral, interrupt controller> at device 0.1 (no driver
attached)
pcib4: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> at device 0.2 on pci2
pci4: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib4
em0: <Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Connection, Version - 2.1.7> port
0x3000-0x303f mem 0xdd300000-0xdd31ffff irq 54 at device 2.0 on pci4
em0: Ethernet address: 00:30:48:2e:71:a4
em0:  Speed:N/A  Duplex:N/A
em1: <Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Connection, Version - 2.1.7> port
0x3040-0x307f mem 0xdd320000-0xdd33ffff irq 55 at device 2.1 on pci4
em1: Ethernet address: 00:30:48:2e:71:a5
em1:  Speed:N/A  Duplex:N/A
pci2: <base peripheral, interrupt controller> at device 0.3 (no driver
attached)
pcib5: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> irq 16 at device 4.0 on pci0
pci5: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib5
pcib6: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> irq 16 at device 6.0 on pci0
pci6: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib6
pcib7: <ACPI PCI-PCI bridge> at device 30.0 on pci0
pci7: <ACPI PCI bus> on pcib7
pci7: <display, VGA> at device 1.0 (no driver attached)
isab0: <PCI-ISA bridge> at device 31.0 on pci0
isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0
atapci0: <Intel ICH5 UDMA100 controller> port
0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6,0x170-0x177,0x376,0x1420-0x142f at device 31.1 on pci0
ata0: <ATA channel 0> on atapci0
ata1: <ATA channel 1> on atapci0
pci0: <serial bus, SMBus> at device 31.3 (no driver attached)
acpi_button0: <Power Button> on acpi0
ppc0: <ECP parallel printer port> port 0x378-0x37f,0x778-0x77f irq 7 drq
1 on acpi0
ppc0: Generic chipset (ECP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode
ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/8 bytes threshold
ppbus0: <Parallel port bus> on ppc0
plip0: <PLIP network interface> on ppbus0
lpt0: <Printer> on ppbus0
lpt0: Interrupt-driven port
ppi0: <Parallel I/O> on ppbus0
atkbdc0: <Keyboard controller (i8042)> port 0x60,0x64 irq 1 on acpi0
atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> irq 1 on atkbdc0
kbd0 at atkbd0
atkbd0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
sio0: <16550A-compatible COM port> port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on
acpi0
sio0: type 16550A
sio1: <16550A-compatible COM port> port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on acpi0
sio1: type 16550A
fdc0: <floppy drive controller> port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on acpi0
fdc0: [FAST]
fd0: <1440-KB 3.5" drive> on fdc0 drive 0
pmtimer0 on isa0
orm0: <ISA Option ROMs> at iomem 0xc0000-0xc7fff,0xc8000-0xc8fff on isa0
sc0: <System console> at flags 0x100 on isa0
sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300>
vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
Timecounters tick every 1.000 msec
Waiting 5 seconds for SCSI devices to settle
acd0: CDRW <HL-DT-ST RW/DVD GCC-4521B/1.05> at ata0-master UDMA33
ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.
 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Dump Card State Begins <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
ahd0: Dumping Card State at program address 0x23b Mode 0x0
Card was paused
INTSTAT[0x0] SELOID[0x1] SELID[0x0] HS_MAILBOX[0x0]
INTCTL[0x80]:(SWTMINTMASK) SEQINTSTAT[0x0] SAVED_MODE[0x11]
DFFSTAT[0x33]:(CURRFIFO_NONE|FIFO0FREE|FIFO1FREE)
SCSISIGI[0x0]:(P_DATAOUT) SCSIPHASE[0x0] SCSIBUS[0x0]
LASTPHASE[0x1]:(P_DATAOUT|P_BUSFREE) SCSISEQ0[0x0]
SCSISEQ1[0x12]:(ENAUTOATNP|ENRSELI) SEQCTL0[0x0]
SEQINTCTL[0x6]:(INTMASK1|INTMASK2)
SEQ_FLAGS[0x0] SEQ_FLAGS2[0x0] QFREEZE_COUNT[0x3]
KERNEL_QFREEZE_COUNT[0x3] MK_MESSAGE_SCB[0xff00] MK_MESSAGE_SCSIID[0xff]
SSTAT0[0x0] SSTAT1[0x0] SSTAT2[0x0] SSTAT3[0x0] PERRDIAG[0x0]
SIMODE1[0xa4]:(ENSCSIPERR|ENSCSIRST|ENSELTIMO) LQISTAT0[0x0]
LQISTAT1[0x0] LQISTAT2[0x0] LQOSTAT0[0x0] LQOSTAT1[0x0]
LQOSTAT2[0x0]

SCB Count = 16 CMDS_PENDING = 0 LASTSCB 0xffff CURRSCB 0x7 NEXTSCB 0xff00
qinstart = 38 qinfifonext = 39
QINFIFO: 0xb
WAITING_TID_QUEUES:
Pending list:
11 FIFO_USE[0x0] SCB_CONTROL[0x48]:(STATUS_RCVD|DISCENB) SCB_SCSIID[0x87]
Total 1
Kernel Free SCB list: 7 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 0
Sequencer Complete DMA-inprog list:
Sequencer Complete list:
Sequencer DMA-Up and Complete list:
Sequencer On QFreeze and Complete list:


ahd0: FIFO0 Free, LONGJMP == 0x8000, SCB 0xf
SEQIMODE[0x3f]:(ENCFG4TCMD|ENCFG4ICMD|ENCFG4TSTAT|ENCFG4ISTAT|ENCFG4DATA|ENSAVEPTRS)

SEQINTSRC[0x0] DFCNTRL[0x0] DFSTATUS[0x89]:(FIFOEMP|HDONE|PRELOAD_AVAIL)
SG_CACHE_SHADOW[0x2]:(LAST_SEG) SG_STATE[0x0] DFFSXFRCTL[0x0]
SOFFCNT[0x0] MDFFSTAT[0x5]:(FIFOFREE|DLZERO) SHADDR = 0x00, SHCNT = 0x0
HADDR = 0x00, HCNT = 0x0 CCSGCTL[0x10]:(SG_CACHE_AVAIL)

ahd0: FIFO1 Free, LONGJMP == 0x8063, SCB 0xb
SEQIMODE[0x3f]:(ENCFG4TCMD|ENCFG4ICMD|ENCFG4TSTAT|ENCFG4ISTAT|ENCFG4DATA|ENSAVEPTRS)

SEQINTSRC[0x0] DFCNTRL[0x0] DFSTATUS[0x89]:(FIFOEMP|HDONE|PRELOAD_AVAIL)
SG_CACHE_SHADOW[0x2]:(LAST_SEG) SG_STATE[0x0] DFFSXFRCTL[0x0]
SOFFCNT[0x0] MDFFSTAT[0x5]:(FIFOFREE|DLZERO) SHADDR = 0x00, SHCNT = 0x0
HADDR = 0x00, HCNT = 0x0 CCSGCTL[0x10]:(SG_CACHE_AVAIL)
LQIN: 0x8 0x0 0x0 0xf 0x0 0x1 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0
0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0
ahd0: LQISTATE = 0x0, LQOSTATE = 0x0, OPTIONMODE = 0x42
ahd0: OS_SPACE_CNT = 0x20 MAXCMDCNT = 0x1
ahd0: SAVED_SCSIID = 0x0 SAVED_LUN = 0x0
SIMODE0[0xc]:(ENOVERRUN|ENIOERR)
CCSCBCTL[0x0]
ahd0: REG0 == 0xd260, SINDEX = 0x10e, DINDEX = 0x104
ahd0: SCBPTR == 0xf, SCB_NEXT == 0xff00, SCB_NEXT2 == 0x7
CDB 12 20 0 80 88 b6
STACK: 0x236 0x2 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Dump Card State Ends >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
ses0 at ahd0 bus 0 target 8 lun 0
ses0: <SUPER GEM359 REV001 1.09> Fixed Processor SCSI-2 device
ses0: 3.300MB/s transfers
ses0: SAF-TE Compliant Device
Copied 18 bytes of sense data offset 12: 0x70 0x0 0x6 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0
0xa 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x29 0x2 0x2 0x0 0x0 0x0
Copied 18 bytes of sense data offset 12: 0x70 0x0 0x6 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0
0xa 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x29 0x2 0x2 0x0 0x0 0x0
SMP: AP CPU #1 Launched!
da0 at ahd0 bus 0 target 0 lun 0
da0: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
da0: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged
Queueing Enabled
da0: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
da1 at ahd0 bus 0 target 1 lun 0
da1: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
da1: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged
Queueing Enabled
da1: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
Trying to mount root from ufs:/dev/da0s1a


Thanks for help,

Ricardo A. Reis
UNIFESP
Unix and Network Admin


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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Ade Lovett

On Nov 10, 2005, at 05:30 , Ricardo A. Reis wrote:

Reducing the problem to the relevant pieces:

> ahd0: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port 0x2400-0x24ff,
> 0x2000-0x20ff mem 0xdd200000-0xdd201fff irq 32 at device 2.0 on pci3
> ahd0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
> aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel A, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs
> ahd1: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port 0x2c00-0x2cff,
> 0x2800-0x28ff mem 0xdd202000-0xdd203fff irq 33 at device 2.1 on pci3
> ahd1: [GIANT-LOCKED]
> aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel B, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs

[...]

> da0 at ahd0 bus 0 target 0 lun 0
> da0: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
> da0: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged  
> Queueing Enabled
> da0: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
> da1 at ahd0 bus 0 target 1 lun 0
> da1: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
> da1: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged  
> Queueing Enabled
> da1: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
> Trying to mount root from ufs:/dev/da0s1a

Adaptec HBAs and Seagate drives have a long and intensely painful  
history of not working well together.  Adaptec blames Seagate.  
Seagate blames Adaptec.  Throw in the myriad of subtly different AIC  
controllers that are commonplace on 1U and 2U rackmount servers, and  
things get even more entertaining.

You essentially have 3 options

1) replace the HBA -- somewhat difficult to do if it's embedded and  
you need the PCIX slots for something else.

2) replace the drives -- IBM/Hitachi are fine choices here.  Make  
sure to tell whomever you purchase systems from that you'll not  
accept Seagate drives in the future.

3) inside the adaptec bios, drop the drives to U160 speed, making  
sure that *both* packetizing *and* QAS are turned OFF.  You'll lose a  
little bit of performance (but not all that much, Seagate drives  
really are garbage), and get some semblance of stability.

-aDe

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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Amit Rao
Ade Lovett wrote:

>
> On Nov 10, 2005, at 05:30 , Ricardo A. Reis wrote:
>
> Reducing the problem to the relevant pieces:
>
>> ahd0: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port
>> 0x2400-0x24ff,0x2000-0x20ff mem 0xdd200000-0xdd201fff irq 32 at device
>> 2.0 on pci3
>> ahd0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
>> aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel A, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs
>> ahd1: <Adaptec AIC7902 Ultra320 SCSI adapter> port
>> 0x2c00-0x2cff,0x2800-0x28ff mem 0xdd202000-0xdd203fff irq 33 at device
>> 2.1 on pci3
>> ahd1: [GIANT-LOCKED]
>> aic7902: Ultra320 Wide Channel B, SCSI Id=7, PCI-X 67-100Mhz, 512 SCBs
>
> [...]
>
>> da0 at ahd0 bus 0 target 0 lun 0
>> da0: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
>> da0: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged
>> Queueing Enabled
>> da0: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
>> da1 at ahd0 bus 0 target 1 lun 0
>> da1: <SEAGATE ST373307LC 0006> Fixed Direct Access SCSI-3 device
>> da1: 320.000MB/s transfers (160.000MHz, offset 63, 16bit), Tagged
>> Queueing Enabled
>> da1: 70007MB (143374744 512 byte sectors: 255H 63S/T 8924C)
>> Trying to mount root from ufs:/dev/da0s1a
>
> Adaptec HBAs and Seagate drives have a long and intensely painful
> history of not working well together.  Adaptec blames Seagate.  Seagate
> blames Adaptec.  Throw in the myriad of subtly different AIC controllers
> that are commonplace on 1U and 2U rackmount servers, and things get even
> more entertaining.
>
> You essentially have 3 options

4 options.

0) Upgrade to Seagate 10K.7 drive firmware level 0008. That seems to
help. One "ahd sequencer error" message still appears at boot, but after
that it seems to work (with your fingers crossed).

-Amit

>
> 1) replace the HBA -- somewhat difficult to do if it's embedded and you
> need the PCIX slots for something else.
>
> 2) replace the drives -- IBM/Hitachi are fine choices here.  Make sure
> to tell whomever you purchase systems from that you'll not accept
> Seagate drives in the future.
>
> 3) inside the adaptec bios, drop the drives to U160 speed, making sure
> that *both* packetizing *and* QAS are turned OFF.  You'll lose a little
> bit of performance (but not all that much, Seagate drives really are
> garbage), and get some semblance of stability.
>
> -aDe
>
> _______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list
> http://lists.freebsd.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable
> To unsubscribe, send any mail to "[hidden email]"
>

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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Ade Lovett

On Nov 11, 2005, at 12:51 , Amit Rao wrote:
> 0) Upgrade to Seagate 10K.7 drive firmware level 0008. That seems  
> to help. One "ahd sequencer error" message still appears at boot,  
> but after that it seems to work (with your fingers crossed).

Of course, you then spend far too much time ensuring that any  
replacement drives are flashed appropriately (which, afaict,  
*requires* Windows to do), and also running the gauntlet of further  
problems down the road when you throw the drives into a new machine  
with a subtly different HBA bios.

No thanks, I'll stick with option (2).  A few more months, and  
Seagate drives will be a nice distant memory that I can look back on  
in a few years, and laugh nervously about.

-aDe

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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

John-Mark Gurney
Ade Lovett wrote this message on Fri, Nov 11, 2005 at 22:57 -0800:

> On Nov 11, 2005, at 12:51 , Amit Rao wrote:
> >0) Upgrade to Seagate 10K.7 drive firmware level 0008. That seems  
> >to help. One "ahd sequencer error" message still appears at boot,  
> >but after that it seems to work (with your fingers crossed).
>
> Of course, you then spend far too much time ensuring that any  
> replacement drives are flashed appropriately (which, afaict,  
> *requires* Windows to do), and also running the gauntlet of further  
> problems down the road when you throw the drives into a new machine  
> with a subtly different HBA bios.

obviously you haven't done any research or even talked with Seagate
about this issue...  Seagate has a Linux version of their Seagate
Enterprise Utility that allows you to flash their drives...

/me having had issues with the drives and successfully flashed drives
w/o using Windows.

--
  John-Mark Gurney Voice: +1 415 225 5579

     "All that I will do, has been done, All that I have, has not."
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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Ade Lovett

On Nov 11, 2005, at 23:10 , John-Mark Gurney wrote:
> obviously you haven't done any research or even talked with Seagate
> about this issue...  Seagate has a Linux version of their Seagate
> Enterprise Utility that allows you to flash their drives...

Yes, I have done plenty of research with Seagate, Adaptec, and a  
number of VARs.

Edit your kernel config, add:

options KVA_PAGES=384

(for a 2.5G/1.5G kernel/userland split, as opposed to 2G/2G)

recompile, install, watch the linuxulator explode in a frenzy.

I have absolutely no interest in putting Linux (or, indeed, anything  
*but* FreeBSD) on my production boxes.

-aDe

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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Sven Willenberger
In reply to this post by Ade Lovett
On Fri, 2005-11-11 at 22:57 -0800, Ade Lovett wrote:

> On Nov 11, 2005, at 12:51 , Amit Rao wrote:
> > 0) Upgrade to Seagate 10K.7 drive firmware level 0008. That seems  
> > to help. One "ahd sequencer error" message still appears at boot,  
> > but after that it seems to work (with your fingers crossed).
>
> Of course, you then spend far too much time ensuring that any  
> replacement drives are flashed appropriately (which, afaict,  
> *requires* Windows to do), and also running the gauntlet of further  
> problems down the road when you throw the drives into a new machine  
> with a subtly different HBA bios.
>
> No thanks, I'll stick with option (2).  A few more months, and  
> Seagate drives will be a nice distant memory that I can look back on  
> in a few years, and laugh nervously about.
>
> -aDe

There was a flash-utility that was [hand-rolled?] able to run on FreeBSD
and I did successfully flash some Seagate drives' firmware -- didn't
help any as far as the error [messages] went so we dropped Seagate
drives altogether a little over a year ago. Since then we have been
using the IBM/Hitachi drives with no issues (much easier to change drive
manufacturers than try to respec the servers we were using or do some of
the borderline-absurd workarounds that Seagate suggested).

Sven

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Re: ahd0: Invalid Sequencer interrupt occurred.

Jo Rhett
In reply to this post by John-Mark Gurney
On Fri, Nov 11, 2005 at 11:10:51PM -0800, John-Mark Gurney wrote:
> obviously you haven't done any research or even talked with Seagate
> about this issue...  Seagate has a Linux version of their Seagate
> Enterprise Utility that allows you to flash their drives...
 
How is this relevant?  Many of us have just as many production linux boxes
as we do production Windows boxes.  (that would be *none*)

--
Joe Rhett
senior geek
SVcolo : Silicon Valley Colocation
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